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Democratic Republic of the Congo

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Flag of Democratic Republic of the Congo

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A series of program type projects, such as assistance for master plan preparation, technical cooperation and financial cooperation for implementation of master plan, are recommended in the Kinshasa City.

SWM Profile for
the Country of Democratic Republic of the Congo

As of April 2018

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) borders the Central African Republic and South Sudan to the north; Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania to the east; Zambia to the south; Angola to the southwest; and the Republic of the Congo and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. It is the second-largest country in Africa (largest in Sub-Saharan Africa) by area and 11th largest in the world. With a population of over 78 million, the DRC is the fourth most-populated nation in Africa and the 17th most populated country in the world.

Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development (Le Ministère de l'Environnement et Développement Durable, MEDD) through the Department of Health (La Direction d'Assainissement, DAS) is responsible for the national sanitation sector and in particular for municipal waste management, and in this sense it is responsible for regulating the sector. A number of ministries are involved in SWM. This includes the Ministry for Infrastructure, Public Works and Reconstruction (Ministère des Infrastructures, Travaux Publics et Reconstruction, MITPR) via the Office of Roads and Drainage (l'Office de Voirie et de Drainage, OVD) which takes care of dredging gutters, rivers and big waste collectors. Due to the dumping of garbage on roadsides and in drains, the sanitary environment of low income and poor residential areas is especially in poor condition.

Basic Information

Population 78.74 million (2016: World Bank)
Population Growth 3.3 % (2016: World Bank)
Area 2,345,000 km2
Climate Wet tropical and equatorial
GDP US $ About 35 billion (2016: World Bank)
GNI per capita US $ 420 (2016: World Bank)
GDP growth rate 2.2 % (2016: World Bank)
Main industries Mining (copper, cobalt, diamond, gold, tin stone, coltan, crude oil etc.), Cosmetics, Forestry, and Agriculture (palm oil, cotton, coffee, wood, natural rubber, etc.), Manufacturing industry (cement, steel, etc.)
Linked cities Kinshasa

Current SWM Situation in the DRC

Item Outline
Legal system The DRC government promotes administrative reform and decentralization under the new Constitution in 2006. Draft Law on Sanitation has been formulated but it is expected that laws specific to solid waste will be formulated in the future. The relevant regulations are as follows.
  • Draft Law on Sanitation (Projet De Loi Sur L'Assainissement), 2017
  • Constitution of the DRC (Constitution de la RDC, 2006 (revised in 2015))
  • Organic Law N°08/016 of 2008 regarding Composition, Organization and Functioning of ETD (Decentralized Territorial Entities) and their Relationships with State and Province (Loi Organique N°08/016 de 2008 Portant Composition, Organisation et Fonctionnement des ETD (Entités Territoriales Décentralisées) et Leurs Rapports Avec l'Etat et La Province)
  • Law N°11/009 of 09 July 2011 regarding Fundamental Principles Relating to the Protection of the Environment (Loi N°11/009 du 09 Juillet 2011 Portant Principes Fondamentaux Relatifs a La Protection de L'environnement)
Formal guidelines for environmental impact assessment have not been formulated in the DRC.
Policy/plan In the DRC, solid waste is treated within the framework of sanitation and the preservation of public health. SWM is covered by the National Sanitation Policy (Politique Nationale d'Assainessement, PoNA), but policies and plans specific to waste management have not yet been formulated. Related policies are as follows.
  • National Sanitation Policy (Politique Nationale d'Assainissement, PoNA), 2013
  • The Draft National Sanitation Strategy (La Stratégie Nationale D'Assainissement, SNA) for the implementation of PoNA was approved in March 2018
  • The National Development Plan (Plan National de Stratégie de Développement, PNSD)
Implementation system
  • Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development (Le Ministère de l'Environnement et Développement Durable, MEDD) through the Department of Health (la Direction de l'Assainissement, DAS): Main organization responsible for waste management.
  • Ministry of Health (Le Ministère de la Santé Publique et la Direction de l'Hygiène, MSP): Involved in waste management from a public health perspective.
  • The National Action Committee on Water, Hygiene and Sanitation (Le Comité National d'Action de l'Eau, de l'Hygiène et d'Assainissement, CNAEHA): Responsible for coordinating water and sanitation sector and belongs to the Ministry of Planning (Ministère du Plan).
  • Ministry of Energy and Hydraulic Resources (Le Ministère de l'Energie et Ressources Hydrauliques, MERH): Responsible for urban water sector policy.
  • Ministry of Infrastructure, Public Works and Reconstruction and the Office of Roads and Drainage (Le Ministère des Infrastructures, Travaux Publics et Reconstruction(MITPR)et l'Office de Voirie et Drainage (OVD)): MITPR is responsible for infrastructure development of road drainage and urban sanitation. OVD designs, constructs, improves and researches urban infrastructure in the sub-sectors of roads and drains under MITPR.
Financial system
  • Ratio of SWM budget allocated within national budget: According to MEDD's financial report in 2016, 0.23% of the national budget was allocated to the MEDD headquarters, of which only 0.06% had been allocated to the sanitation sector, but the funds were not disbursed.
  • Tax on waste disposal: A sanitation tax in Kinshasa City is under discussion.
  • Subsidies from central government to local governments: None.
Donor support
  • EU: Supported road improvements and assistance to the hygiene sector from 2007 to 2015 in Kinshasa City as part of the PARAU Project (Projet d'Appui à la Réhabilitation et l'Assainissement Urbain, PARAU). It covered all the necessary expenses such as equipment, facilities, salaries for staff and private collectors. The Régie d'Assainissement de Kinshasa (RASKIN), formerly Régie d'Assainissement et des Travaux Publics de Kinshasa (RATPK) took over the project.
  • The World Bank: Implementing two projects in the sanitation sector. One is specialized for wastewater, construction of wastewater treatment facility and sludge disposal site in Kinshasa City is planned. The second one is a comprehensive urban development project including improvement of infrastructure such as wastewater for the N'Djili River basin where many poor people are susceptible to flood damage, strengthening capacity of communes, etc. It also includes solid waste components.
  • KFW/GIZ: Implementing the Water Sector Programme (Programme du Secteur de l'Eau, ProSecEau) with the purpose of supplying water and sanitation for Mbuji-Mayi and Kikwit with a budget of approximately 5 million euros.
Needs for improvement
  • A series of program type projects, such as assistance for master plan preparation, technical cooperation and financial cooperation for implementation of master plan, are recommended in Kinshasa City.

Status of other basic services

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Access to:
Water 70% (in urban area, 2015)a
Sanitation 22.6% (in urban area, 2015)b
Hygiene 7% (in urban area, 2015)c
Electricity 35% (in urban area, 2016)d

Definition

  • a:at least access to drinking water from an improved source, provided collection time not more than 30 minutes for a round trip, including queuing (improved sources include piped water, boreholes or tube wells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water).
  • b:at least access to improved facilities that are not shared with other households (improved facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines, ventilated improved pit latrines, composting toilets or pit latrines with slabs).
  • c:access to handwashing facilities on premises with soap and water (handwashing facilities may be fixed or mobile and include a sink with tap water, buckets with taps, tippy-taps, and jugs or basins designated for handwashing. Soap includes bar soap, liquid soap, powder detergent, and soapy water but does not include ash, soil, sand or other handwashing agents).
  • d:a household having reliable and affordable access to both clean cooking facilities and to electricity, which is enough to supply a basic bundle of energy services initially, and then an increasing level of electricity over time to reach the regional average. A basic bundle of energy services means, at a minimum, several lightbulbs, task lighting (such as a flashlight), phone charging and a radio.
Source for water, sanitation and hygiene: WHO, UNICEF, "Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene – 2017"
Source for electricity: International Energy Agency, "Energy Access Outlook 2017"

Waste generation amount in the future (estimate)

This section shows probable waste generation amount in the future in three cases of waste generation rate, i.e., 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 kg/person/day.
Population
 

unit: thousand persons

Area 2015 2020 2025 2030
Total 71,246 81,252 92,117 103,743
Urban 30,275 36,659 44,000 52,251
Waste Generation
  unit: thousand ton /day
Generation rate
(kg/pers./day)
2015 2020 2025 2030
0.50

15.1

18.3

22.0

26.1
0.75 22.7

27.5

33.0

39.2
1.00

30.3

36.7

44.0

52.3

Waste generation = (generation rate) x (urban pops.)

 

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Source for population:
United Nations (Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs), "World Urbanization Prospects, the 2014 version"

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