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Ethiopia

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Support for establishment of waste management system in local cities

SWM Profile for the Country of Ethiopia

As of April 2018

Ethiopia is a federal republic nation located in East Africa. It is an inland country, sharing borders with Eritrea to the north and northeast, Djibouti and Somalia to the east, Sudan and South Sudan to the west, and Kenya to the south. The capital city is Addis Ababa. The population is approximately 102.4 million (2016: World Bank), the second largest population in sub-Saharan Africa, following Nigeria. It is located in the tropics, but the majority of the country is highlands centered on the Ethiopian Plateau with an average annual temperature of 13°C. The Ethiopian Plateau has a lot of precipitation and the annual rainfall is over 1200mm. usually, the rainy season is from mid-June to mid-September.

Municipal waste management in Ethiopia is under the supervision of the Ministry of Urban Development and Housing (MoUDH), and it is shared by Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change (MoEFCC) and Ministry of Health (MoH). The MoUDHC provides guidance to local governments for the formulation of waste management plans and regularly monitors them. By incorporating the private sector into waste services, the country considers the creation of employment opportunities for the poor and low-income group.

Basic Information

Population Approximately 102.4 million (2016 : World Bank)
Population Growth 2.5% (2016 : World Bank)
Area 1,097,000 km2
Climate Tropical (depending on altitude)
GNI US $67.5 billion (2016: World Bank)
GNI per capita US $660 (2016: World Bank)
GDP growth rate 7.6% (2016: World Bank)
Main industries Agriculture (grain, beans, coffee, oil), floristry, leather (cattle, sheep, goat)
Linked cities Addis Ababa, Hawassa, Bahir Dar

Current SWM Situation in Ethiopia

Item Outline
Legal system Regarding waste management, the following two regulations are important.
  • Solid Waste Management Proclamation No. 513/2007
  • National Urban Solid Waste Management Standards
The related regulations are as follows;
  • Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) Constitution, 1994
  • Environmental Protection Organs Establishment Proclamation No.295/2002
  • Environmental Pollution Control Proclamation No.300/2002
  • EIA Proclamation No. 299/2002
  • Regulation on Prevention of Industrial Pollution No. 159/2008
  • Standards for Industrial Pollution Control, 2013
Policy/plan Regarding waste management, the following three policies are important.
  • Urban Solid Waste Handling and Disposal Strategy, 2014
  • National Integrated Urban Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy, 2017
  • 2nd Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP-2 for 2016-2020)
The related policies are as follows;
  • Environmental Policy of Ethiopia, 1997
  • Urban Development Policy, 1991
There is no privatization policy on waste management.
Implementation system
  • Ministry of Urban Development and Housing (MoUDH): Main organization responsible for waste management.
  • Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC): Responsible for overseeing the formulation and implementation of policies, strategies, laws and standards concerning the overall environment.
  • Ministry of Health (MoH): Involved in waste management from a public health perspective.
  • Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Electricity (MoWIE): Organization responsible for formulation of policies, strategies and implementation of capacity building related to water resources development, urban water supply and sewerage.
  • Ethiopia Standard Agency (ESA): Organization that sets and manages various standards.
  • Ethiopia Water Technology Institute (EWTI): Established by JICA, mainly disseminates technologies related to excavation and management of wells, but also conducts waste management courses.
Financial system
  • Ratio of SWM budget allocated within national budget: Unknown
  • Tax on waste disposal: None.
  • Subsidies from central government to local government: None.
Donor support
  • Prepared "National Integrated Urban Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy, 2017" with the support of the World Bank.
  • Prepared "National Urban Solid Waste Management Standards" with the support of GIZ.
Areas for improvement
  • Support for establishment of waste management system in local cities

Status of other basic services

Access to:
Water 77% (in urban area, 2015)a
Sanitation 18% (in urban area, 2015)b
Hygiene 5% (in urban area, 2015)c
Electricity 85% (in urban area, 2016)d

Definition

  • a:at least access to drinking water from an improved source, provided collection time not more than 30 minutes for a round trip, including queuing (improved sources include piped water, boreholes or tube wells, protected dug wells, protected springs, and packaged or delivered water).
  • b:at least access to improved facilities that are not shared with other households (improved facilities include flush/pour flush to piped sewer systems, septic tanks or pit latrines, ventilated improved pit latrines, composting toilets or pit latrines with slabs).
  • c:access to handwashing facilities on premises with soap and water (handwashing facilities may be fixed or mobile and include a sink with tap water, buckets with taps, tippy-taps, and jugs or basins designated for handwashing. Soap includes bar soap, liquid soap, powder detergent, and soapy water but does not include ash, soil, sand or other handwashing agents).
  • d:a household having reliable and affordable access to both clean cooking facilities and to electricity, which is enough to supply a basic bundle of energy services initially, and then an increasing level of electricity over time to reach the regional average. A basic bundle of energy services means, at a minimum, several lightbulbs, task lighting (such as a flashlight), phone charging and a radio.

Source for water, sanitation and hygiene: WHO, UNICEF, “Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene – 2017”

Source for electricity: International Energy Agency, “Energy Access Outlook 2017”

Waste generation amount in the future (estimate)

This section shows probable waste generation amount in the future in three cases of waste generation rate, i.e., 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 kg/person/day.
Population
 

unit: thousand persons

Area 2015 2020 2025 2030
Total 98,942 111,521 124,537 137,670
Urban 19,266 24,296 30,190 36,907
Waste Generation
  unit: thousand ton /day
Generation rate
(kg/pers./day)
2015 2020 2025 2030
0.50 9.6 12.1 15.1 18.5
0.75 14.4 18.2 22.6 27.7
1.00 19.3 24.3 30.2 36.9

Waste generation = (generation rate) x (urban pops.)

 

graph

 

Source for population:  
United Nations (Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs), “World Urbanization Prospects, the 2014 version”

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