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The City of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

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Private workshop contracted by the city

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needs1
Rapid increase of population and waste generation amount is expected to continue in the future. Since the current waste collection system is barely catching up its trend, there is necessity for supporting machineries and equipment.
needs2
As there is no quantitative data necessary for a basis of waste management due to lack of weigh bridge, there is necessity for improvement.

SWM Profile for the City of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

As of April 2018

Bahir Dar in Ethiopia is the capital of the Amhara Regional State and consists of 6 sub-cities. It is approximately 600km north-northeast of Addis Ababa, the altitude is about 1,800m. It is located on the southern coast of Ethiopia's largest Lake Tana, the source of the Blue Nile. The population was about 220,000 in 2007, but increased to about 340,000 in 2017, the population growth rate during this period was as rapid as about 4.4% per year.

From the viewpoint of waste management, the Bahir Dar City is kept clean, but some organic waste is scattered on market streets. On the other hand, waste can hardly be found in front of residential areas. Although the current final disposal site is open dumping, there are plans to build a new sanitary landfill. Material recycling and composting have just started in the city, but there is a need for technical improvement and procurement of equipment.

Basic Information

Population 301,000 (2015 estimated, UN)
Population Growth

6.6 % p.a. (2010-2020)

Area 213.43 km2
Climate Tropical savanna climate (very similar to a subtropical highland climate)
Main industries Agriculture, tourism
Other In 2002 the city was awarded the UNESCO Cities for Peace Prize.

Current SWM Situation in Bahir Dar

Institutional System

Item Outline
Legal system
  • The city basically follows the legal system established by the Federal Government. However, bylaws that supplement the Federal Government Basic Law can be set independently.
  • An ordinance on revising the waste collection fee is currently under preparation.
Policy/plan
  • As of January 2018, under the instruction of Amhara Regional State Urban Development and Housing Bureau, an Urban Structure Plan is under preparation.
Implementation system
  • Environmental Protection, Sanitation & Beautification Office in Bahir Dar City Administration is in charge of solid waste management.

Technical System

Item Outline
Waste generation amount & characteristics
  • Waste collection amount is 120,000m3/year (approximately 330m3/day). Assuming that the density is 0.3-0.5, it is estimated to be 100-160 tons/day. Collection coverage rate is 82% (estimate).
Storage and discharge/ Collection and transportation/Road sweeping
  • 5 Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) collect waste from each household mainly with push carts and then reload waste to dump trucks to transport to the final disposal site. A private company also provides collection service.
  • Road sweeping is conducted by street sweepers (178 people) employed directly by the city.
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Push carts for primary collection

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Only one skip loader is in operation

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Skip loader under repair

Intermediate treatment/ Recycling
  • Small scale recycling and composting activities are conducted by MSEs and private companies.
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Plastic materials stored at MSE

  • Construction of a new compost facility adjoining the disposal site has just started with the support of UNDP.
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Compost plant operated by MSE

Final disposal
  • It is an open dump site used for more than 20 years.
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Waste loading at disposal site

  • It is planned to implement projects for improvement of the current disposal site. There are also plans to design a new landfill site with the support of UN-Habitat where Fukuoka methods will be applied.
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Transportation of waste into disposal site

Other

Item Outline
Financial system
  • The city collects a waste collection fee and pays for MSEs and private enterprises.
Environmental and social considerations
  • The city has measures that take into consideration the poor such as organization of MSEs.
  • There are plans for constructing a sorting facility and several small-scale transfer stations equipped with compacting and packing equipment.
Donor support
  • UN-Habitat supports an improvement of the current disposal site and design of a new landfill site.
  • The World Bank plans to provide financial support for the construction of a new landfill site.
Needs for improvement
  • Rapid increase of population and waste generation amount is expected to continue in the future. Since the current waste collection system is barely catching up its trend, there is necessity for supporting machineries and equipment.
  • As there is no quantitative data necessary for a basis of waste management due to lack of weigh bridge, there is necessity for improvement.

Current Waste Flow

flow

 

Waste flow Amount (ton/day) Remarks
1) Waste generation 120 - 200* Waste generated at houses, offices, shops, restaurants, etc.
2) Discharge to collection Unregistered Waste discharged for collection services
3) Self disposal ditto Disposal at generation sources, such as burning and burying
4) Recycling at source ditto Reuse of materials, composting, to recyclers
5) Collection and Transport 100 - 160* Waste amount collected and transported
6) Clandestine dumping Unregistered Waste illegally disposed of at somewhere 
7) Treatment Ditto Material recycle, composting, incineration, etc.
8) Recycling / Reduction Ditto Recycled and/or reduced waste amount by material recycle, composting, incineration, etc.
9) Residue ditto Residue from treatment facilities
10) Final disposal site ditto Waste amount brought into disposal sites
11) Recycling ditto Recycled at disposal sites
12) Final disposal ditto Waste amount finally disposed of at disposal sites

Figures with (*) are estimated, not measured.

 

Location of waste management facility and related photograph

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Workshop owned by the City

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Private workshop contracted by the city

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