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The City of Hawassa, Ethiopia

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Street cleaning by residents

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needs1
Since the waste generation amount is expected to increase according to the population growth, more waste collection vehicles are necessary.
needs2
As current disposal site is open dumping, technical improvement such as compacting and covering using heavy machines is necessary.
needs3
Establishment of waste management system based on actual waste generation amount and quantitative data is necessary.

SWM Profile for the City of Hawassa, Ethiopia

As of April 2018

Hawassa in Ethiopia is the capital of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region, and is located on the eastern shores of Lake Hawassa in the Great Rift Valley. Although the estimated population in 2017 was about 390,000 people, it is said that the actual population is more than that as the population increases rapidly along with the development of the Hawassa Industrial Park (HIP).

From the viewpoint of waste management, Hawassa city is kept very clean. Dumped garbage cannot be seen on the roadside. On the other hand, since the final disposal site is an open dumping site, the surrounding environment is deteriorating. Material recycling and composting have only just been initiated recently, but Hawassa City supports its institutionalization and operation.

Basic Information

Population 357,000 (2015 estimated, UN)
Population Growth 3.5% p.a. (2000-2015)
Area 50 km2
Climate Tropical savanna climate (borders on Subtropical highland climate)
Main industries Agriculture, textiles
Other With the opening of the HIP in January 2017, the population rapidly flows into the city. Currently about 13,000 people are employed but the ultimate target number will be 150,000.

Current SWM Situation in Hawassa

Institutional System

Item Outline
Legal system
  • Waste management in Hawassa City basically follows the legal system established by the Federal Government. However, rules that supplement the Federal Government Basic Law, such as penalties, can be set independently.
Policy/plan
  • As of January 2018, under the instruction of the Ministry of Urban Development and Housing (MoUDH), the City is preparing a waste management plan based on Solid Waste Management Strategy and Standard set by MoUDH, which includes construction of a new sanitary landfill site and three transfer stations.
Implementation system
  • Waste Management and Greenery Core Processing provides waste service and belongs to the Municipality Department which provides public service. Municipal Service Delivery Core Processing also supports Waste Management and Greenery Core Processing.

Technical System

Item Outline
Waste generation amount & characteristics
  • Waste collection amount is 150-200 tons/day; collection coverage rate is 80% (estimate).
  • Waste generation rate is 0.43 kg/person/day (USAID).
Storage and discharge/ Collection and transportation/Road sweeping
  • Waste from households is collected and carried to collection points (skip points) by Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs). The City directly transports waste to the disposal site from there.
  • 23 MSEs collect waste from each household using three-wheel cars, donkey carts, and push carts. Then, they either transport waste directly to the final disposal site or transport to a skip point equipped with containers.
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Door-to-door collection by donkey cart

  • The city transports waste from skip point to final disposal site by skip loader and truck.
  • Road sweeping is conducted by street sweepers (1096 people) employed directly by the city using tractors.
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Tractor for street sweeping

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Three-wheel car for waste collection

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Only one skip loader is in operation

Intermediate treatment/ Recycling
  • There are 5 MSEs for recycling.
  • Three of the above MSEs are located next to the current disposal site; 1) Composting 2) Plastic recycling 3) Recycling of industrial waste.
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Composting facility

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Plastic recycling

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Recycling of industrial waste

Final disposal
  • Current disposal site is a closed quarry site in the city and open dumping.
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Current disposal site

Other

Item Outline
Financial system
  • Households and shops etc., pay a collection fee directly to the MSEs. However, the city sets the tariff. MSEs have their own bank accounts for managing collected fee.
Environmental and social considerations
  • The city has measures that take into consideration the poor such as organization of MSEs.
  • A new sanitary landfill is planned to be built.
Donor support
  • Any donor's activity has not been identified. However, it is said that GIZ shows interest to support the construction of a new sanitary landfill site.
Needs for improvement
  • Since the waste generation amount is expected to increase according to the population growth, more waste collection vehicles are necessary.
  • As current disposal site is open dumping, technical improvement such as compacting and covering using heavy machines is necessary.
  • Establishment of waste management system based on actual waste generation amount and quantitative data is necessary.

Current Waste Flow

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Waste flow Amount (ton/day) Remarks
1) Waste generation 190 - 250* Waste generated at houses, offices, shops, restaurants, etc.
2) Discharge to collection Unregistered Waste discharged for collection services
3) Self disposal ditto Disposal at generation sources, such as burning and burying
4) Recycling at source ditto Reuse of materials, composting, to recyclers
5) Collection and Transport 150 - 200* Waste amount collected and transported
6) Clandestine dumping Unregistered Waste illegally disposed of at somewhere 
7) Treatment ditto Material recycle, composting, incineration, etc.
8) Recycling / Reduction ditto Recycled and/or reduced waste amount by material recycle, composting, incineration, etc.
9) Residue ditto Residue from treatment facilities
10) Final disposal site ditto Waste amount brought into disposal sites
11) Recycling ditto Recycled at disposal sites
12) Final disposal ditto Waste amount finally disposed of at disposal sites

Figures with (*) are estimated, not measured.

Location of waste management facility and related photograph

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Street cleaning by residents

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