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The City of Kinshasa, DRC

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the transfer station

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needs1

Equipment procured by the EU project is in short due to deterioration and so on, and waste accumulates in the community. Improvement is also urgently needed to prevent the spread of waterborne infectious diseases from the viewpoint of public health.

needs2

Because the disposal site constructed by the EU is in operation, the need for emergency assistance is low. However, since the city has a population of 10 million people and is expected to reach nearly 20 million in 2030, there is a high need for a plan to construct multiple disposal sites.

needs3

At the moment there are only some small recycling companies but considering the size of city and the amount of waste, the necessity of reducing waste through intermediate treatment and recycling in the future is high.

needs4
In the future, it is anticipated that the economic activity will become active and the urbanization will continue, and since the scale is also large, it is important to develop a legal system on difficult-to-handle waste at an early stage.

SWM Profile for the City of Kinshasa, DRC

As of April 2018

Kinshasa City, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, is situated on the left bank of the Congo River and has multiple functions, in particular administrative, industrial, commercial, cultural and touristic. It's a megalopolis with a population of 12 millions. The population was 1,600 in 1920, but in 1959 just before independence it became about 400,000 people, after independence the population growth rate further increased, with an average population increase of 5% per annum.

The Sanitation Authority for Kinshasa (La Régie d'Assainissement de Kinshasa, RASKIN), formerly known as the Sanitation and Public Works Department of Kinshasa (Régie d'Assainissement et des Travaux Publics de Kinshasa, RATPK) is the local government's technical body responsible for sanitation and waste services in Kinshasa City. It is under the supervision of the Provincial Ministry which is in charge of the environment. The waste services of Kinshasa City have been supported by the EU for many years, through the PARAU project (Le Projet d'Appui et de Réhabilitation des Infrastructures Routières en RDC et d'Amélioration de l'Assainissement Urbain de Kinshasa), but now the project is over, the situation has become serious due to lack of financial resources. To overcome this situation, the city began to introduce Sanitation Tax.

 

Basic Information

Population

12 million (estimated in 2017 by the Study of the Transport Master Plan for Kinshasa)

Population Growth

5% (average after independence in 1960)

Area 9,965 km2 (City-province), 583 km2(Urban)
Climate

Humid tropical climate with clear dry season (mid-May to August) and rainy season (September to mid-May)

Major industries Administration, commerce,transport, agriculture (market gardening),manufacturing (bread making, brewery, metalwork,cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, plastics…), tourism, culture, sport

Current SWM Situation in Kinshasa

Institutional System

Item Outline
Legal system
  • By law, municipalities (counties) are obliged to collect, transport, and dispose of waste, and to construct treatment facilities. But in Kinshasa they don’t have the financial means to deal with this problem.
  • There is the 003/2013 Edict from 9 September 2013 regarding the sanitation and protection of the environment and a number of provincial by-laws that relate to waste management in the city of Kinshasa.
  • There is also the Ordinance Law no. 13/001 of 23 February 2013, fixing the provincial taxes, charges, levies, and fees and decentralised territorial entities as well as their terms and conditions for distribution, instituting a tax for sanitation, waste removal and household waste.
Policy/plan
  • National Sanitation Policy (Politique Nationale d’Assainissement, PoNA) was formulated in 2013, solid waste is one of the sectors. A national sanitation strategy (draft) for its implementation is prepared in 2017, but it has not been enforced.
Implementation system
  • At a central level the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development (Le Ministère de l'Environnement et Développement Durable, MEDD) through the Department of Sanitation (La Direction d'Assainissement, DAS) is responsible for waste management. In this way they're responsible for regulating the sub-sector of solid waste.
  • In Kinshasa City, RASKIN is in charge of waste management.
  • In the context of decentralization, the communes deal with the operational aspects of SWM.

Technical System

Item Outline
Waste generation amount & characteristics
  • If the waste generation amount per person is 0.7 kg/person/day and the population is 12 million people, waste generation per day would be 8,400 tons. The organized collection rate is estimated to be 25%.
  • Characteristics: Calorific levels: around 1kg of waste or 1kj = 0.239 millithermie.
  • Humidity level: 60-70%
  • Municipal waste composition of Kinshasa City:
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Storage and discharge/ Collection and transportation/Road sweeping
  • NGOs or MSEs (Micro and Small Enterprises) in exchange for payment collect household waste by push-carts, etc. and transport them to 61 transfer stations installed by the EU project (40).
  • Waste at transfer stations is transported by RASKIN’s skip loaders or dump trucks to final disposal site about 35km (approximately 1 hour) away from the city center (Gombe).
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Push-carts used for primary collection

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Transfer Station installed by EU

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Collection of recyclable materials at the transfer station

  • Due to deterioration and breakdown, there is little equipment procured by EU that can still be used. Therefore, there is a shortage of equipment.
  • The main road is kept usually clean by the sweepers. In addition to RASKIN, about 60 NGOs clean up the roads in five communes with expenditures from BCECO, a related agency of the Ministry of Finance.
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Skip loaders donated by EU (Container vehicles)

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Road sweeper

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Newly procured collection trucks (white ones)

Intermediate treatment/ Recycling
  • Small-scale recyclers of plastics, E-waste and compost (often referred to as NGOs) are gradually being established. The city of Kinshasa supports them by lending the land free of charge.
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Recycling of E-waste

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Recycling of plastic materials

Final disposal
  • The final disposal site constructed by EU is located 35km east away from the center of the city. Area covers 250ha and 30ha has been used already. Amount of collected waste by RASKIN is approximately 1,500 tons/day (estimate), and some waste is transported directly by waste generators to the landfill site.
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Disposal site

  • The disposal site is equipped with fences, gates, workshops with offices and minor equipment. However, weighing machines are not installed.
  • There are no waste collectors active at the site but the city receives many requests from operators especially for energy production.
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Heavy equipment (Bomag Sheepsfoot Compactor) at the disposal site (out of orders)

Other

Item Outline
Financial system
  • Currently, waste generators such as households and shops pay directly to waste collectors.
  • RASKIN is operated with grants from the state government of Kinshasa.
  • A regional organization called FONAK has been set up to collect fees for the hygiene sector. They have now started to gather some funds on behalf of their partners.
Environmental and social considerations
  • Due to the dumping of garbage on roadsides and in drains, the sanitary environment of low income and poor residential areas is particularly bad.
Donor support
  • EU supported the improvement of dirt roads in the regions of the former Bandundu, Equateur and Kasai Occidental and the improvement of the urban sanitation sector from 2008 to 2015. It covered all the necessary expenses such as procurement of equipment, repairs and maintenance, roadworks, construction of collectors, dredging, the construction and operation of transfer stations, the construction and operation of CET (road access, compartments and reservoirs) and salaries for staff. RASKIN took over the solid waste management component of the project.
  • The World Bank intends on implementing two projects in the hygiene sector. The first specializes in the pre-collection, collection, disposal and recycling of solid waste in the villages of Kimbanseke, Masina, N’djili, Kisenso, Matete, Lemba, Limete and Mont-Ngafula. The second one is the construction of a sludge treatment plant in Kinshasa city.
  • The French Development Agency (l’Agence Française de Développement) also intends on implementing a project for pre-collection, collection, disposal and recycling of solid waste in two districts in Limete and one district in Masina.
Needs for improvement
  • Equipment procured by the EU project is in short due to deterioration and so on, and waste accumulates in the community. Improvement is also urgently needed to prevent the spread of waterborne infectious diseases from the viewpoint of public health.
  • Because the disposal site constructed by the EU is in operation, the need for emergency assistance is low. However, since the city has a population of 10 million people and is expected to reach nearly 20 million in 2030, there is a high need for a plan to construct multiple disposal sites.
  • At the moment there are only some small recycling companies but considering the size of city and the amount of waste, the necessity of reducing waste through intermediate treatment and recycling in the future is high.
  • In the future, it is anticipated that the economic activity will become active and the urbanization will continue, and since the scale is also large, it is important to develop a legal system on difficult-to-handle waste at an early stage.

Current Waste Flow

flow

 

Waste flow Amount (ton/day) Remarks
1) Waste generation 8400* Waste generated at houses, offices, shops, restaurants, etc.
2) Discharge to collection Unregistered Waste discharged for collection services
3) Self disposal ditto Disposal at generation sources, such as burning and burying
4) Recycling at source ditto Reuse of materials, composting, to recyclers
5) Collection and Transport 2100* Waste amount collected and transported
6) Clandestine dumping Unregistered Waste illegally disposed of at somewhere 
7) Treatment ditto Material recycle, composting, incineration, etc.
8) Recycling / Reduction ditto Recycled and/or reduced waste amount by material recycle, composting, incineration, etc.
9) Residue ditto Residue from treatment facilities
10) Final disposal site ditto Waste amount brought into disposal sites
11) Recycling ditto Recycled at disposal sites
12) Final disposal ditto Waste amount finally disposed of at disposal sites

Figures with (*) are estimated, not measured.

Location of final disposal site


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